Every penny a customer commits to pay on a platform is counted as part of GMV, whether or not they pay, or later get the money refunded.
Ele.me is criticized for its treatment of the family of a deliveryman who died on the job. The US may ban American investors from Alibaba and Tencent.
NIO and its peers are prying open a window of opportunity to beat Tesla. But time is limited, and every company is sprinting to catch up.